There is a rarely used, unnamed type of interchange using a grade-separated design, similar to the at-grade design known as a "synchronized split-phasing intersection". It is somewhat like the diverging windmill except that left turn exits use left directional ramps, which, as with the diverging windmill, merge on the left. One such interchange formerly existed between Interstate 95 and I-695 north of Baltimore, which has since been replaced by a four-level stack. There are few of these "synchronized split-phasing" interchanges, including one in Birmingham, Alabama between I-65 and I-20/I-59, locally called Malfunction Junction (33.521505°N 86.826564°W). Another is located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between the Eastern Ring Road and the Southern Ring Road (24.630868°N 46.803215°E). A variation of this type exists in Grand Rapids, Michigan between Interstate 196 and US 131, where only the opposing carriageways of US 131 cross over each other, while the carriageways for I-196 do not cross over, but pass through the interchange on different levels. Another variation of this type exists in Charlotte, North Carolina between I-77 and I-85, where only the opposing carriageways of I-77 cross over each other; there are loop ramps from I-77 northbound to I-85 southbound and also from I-77 southbound to I-85 northbound.
Like a directional T interchange, a semi-directional T interchange uses flyover (overpass) or underpass ramps in all directions at a three-way interchange. However, in a semi-directional T some of the splits and merges are switched to avoid ramps to and from the passing lane, eliminating the major disadvantage of the directional T. Semi-directional T interchanges are generally safe and efficient, though being three-level interchanges they do require more land and are costlier than trumpet interchanges. Semi-directional T interchanges are built as two or three-level stacks. Three-level stacks may use an overpass and underpass at a single point. Two-level stacks have a longer bridge or two shorter bridges on the same roadway.
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A diverging diamond interchange (DDI) or double crossover diamond interchange (DCD) is similar to a traditional diamond interchange, except the non-highway lanes cross each other twice, once on each side of the highway. This allows all highway entrances and exits to avoid crossing the opposite direction of travel and saves one signal phase of traffic lights each.
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A half-clover interchange is essentially half a cloverleaf interchange, constructed to connect in just three directions instead of four. These are rarely used due to the traffic weaving that they cause and the large amount of land that they consume, but they can be built in areas where the connecting ramp along the loop of a trumpet interchange is not feasible due to building developments or physical limitations. Half-clovers are designed to be readily upgraded to full cloverleaves if the terminating highway is ever extended past the through highway. Numerous half-clovers exist along I-90/I-94 in the Chicago, Illinois area.
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A freeway junction or highway interchange (US) or motorway junction (UK) is a type of road junction linking one controlled-access highway (freeway or motorway) to another, to other roads, or to a rest area or motorway service area. In the UK, most (but not all) junctions are numbered sequentially. In the US, interchanges are either numbered by mileage (in most states) or by interchange number.
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A standard stack interchange includes roads on four levels, also known as a four-level stack: including the two perpendicular highways, and one more additional level for each pair of left-turn ramps. These ramps can be stacked in various configurations above, below, or between the two interchanging highways. This makes them distinct from Turbine interchanges, where pairs of left-turn ramps are separated but at the same level. There are some stacks that could be considered five-level; however, these remain four-way interchanges, since the fifth level actually consists of dedicated ramps for HOV/bus lanes or frontage roads running through the interchange.
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