In the field of road transport, an interchange is a road junction that uses grade separation, and typically one or more ramps, to permit traffic on at least one highway to pass through the junction without interruption from other crossing traffic streams. It differs from a standard intersection, where roads cross at grade. Interchanges are almost always used when at least one road is a controlled-access highway (freeway or motorway) or a limited-access divided highway (expressway), though they are sometimes used at junctions between surface streets.

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To keep the block generation time equal to ten minutes on average, both Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash use an algorithm adjusting the mining difficulty parameter. This algorithm is called the difficulty adjustment algorithm (DAA). Originally, both Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash used the same difficulty adjustment algorithm, adjusting the mining difficulty parameter every 2016 blocks. Since 1 August 2017, Bitcoin Cash also used an addition to the DAA, called an Emergency Difficulty Adjustment (EDA) algorithm. EDA was used alongside the original DAA and it was designed to decrease the mining difficulty of Bitcoin Cash by 20%, if the time difference between 6 successive blocks was greater than 12 hours.[36] 

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There is a rarely used, unnamed type of interchange using a grade-separated design, similar to the at-grade design known as a "synchronized split-phasing intersection".[7] It is somewhat like the diverging windmill except that left turn exits use left directional ramps, which, as with the diverging windmill, merge on the left. One such interchange formerly existed between Interstate 95 and I-695 north of Baltimore, which has since been replaced by a four-level stack. There are few of these "synchronized split-phasing" interchanges, including one in Birmingham, Alabama between I-65 and I-20/I-59, locally called Malfunction Junction (33.521505°N 86.826564°W). Another is located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between the Eastern Ring Road and the Southern Ring Road (24.630868°N 46.803215°E). A variation of this type exists in Grand Rapids, Michigan between Interstate 196 and US 131, where only the opposing carriageways of US 131 cross over each other, while the carriageways for I-196 do not cross over, but pass through the interchange on different levels. Another variation of this type exists in Charlotte, North Carolina between I-77 and I-85, where only the opposing carriageways of I-77 cross over each other; there are loop ramps from I-77 northbound to I-85 southbound and also from I-77 southbound to I-85 northbound.

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The would-be hard fork with an expanded block size limit was described by hardware manufacturer Bitmain in June 2017 as a "contingency plan" should the bitcoin community decide to fork; the first implementation of the software was proposed under the name Bitcoin ABC at a conference that month. In July 2017, the Bitcoin Cash name was proposed by mining pool ViaBTC. The change, called a fork, took effect on 1 August 2017. As a result, the bitcoin ledger called the blockchain and the cryptocurrency split in two.[16]

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Peer to peer (P2P) electronic cash is simply described as online money sent from one person to another without the need for a trusted third-party. As described in the original Bitcoin whitepaper by Satoshi Nakamoto, P2P cash makes use of digital signatures as part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent fraud. This makes P2P cash a trustless and safe way to transact without the need of intermediaries.

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